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In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia.
Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (Estonian: kihelkond) and the county (Estonian: maakond), which consisted of multiple parishes.
A major leader of the Estonian resistance was Lembitu, an elder of Sakala County, but in 1217 Estonians suffered a significant defeat at the Battle of St. In 1219 Valdemar II landed at Lyndanisse, defeated the Estonians in battle, and started conquering Northern Estonia.
The next year, Sweden invaded Western Estonia, but were repelled by the Oeselians.
Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia.A parish was led by elders and centred around a hill fort; in some rare cases a parish had multiple forts.By the 13th century Estonia consisted of eight major counties: Harjumaa, Järvamaa, Läänemaa, Revala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, and Virumaa; and six minor, single-parish counties: Alempois, Jogentagana, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Soopoolitse, and Vaiga.In 1223, a major revolt ejected Germans and Danes from the whole of Estonia except Reval, but the crusaders soon resumed the offensive, and in 1227, Saaremaa was the last county to surrender.Northern-Estonia became the Danish Duchy of Estonia, while the rest was divided between the Sword Brothers and prince-bishoprics of Dorpat and Ösel–Wiek.